August 8, 1914
Page 1

Difficulty in Effecting Transportation for Hundreds of Concert and Operatic Stars now Marooned Abroad, Threatens to Postpone American Season−Managers Predict that United States Is Likely to Be Visited by a Great Army of Musicians if War is Protracted—Fears for American Musicians Who May Be in Need of Funds−Conservatories and Schools of this Country to Benefit by Closing of Foreign Educational Institutions−Opera Companies, Menaced by Probable Drafting of Singers for Army Duty—Managers Not Pessimistic

WITH a war, the enormity of which cannot yet be adequately estimated, raging the length and breadth of Europe, the coming American music season promises to be seriously affected.
While no definite information has been obtainable it is safe to assume that the war has broken up such foreign music festivals and similar activities as were under way and caused the cancellation of those that were planned. The Wagner festival at Bayreuth has been in full swing for some days and festivals were planned for Salzburg, Munich and Dresden.
Unless the portentous conflict can be ended within a month or thereabouts, or unless some manner of transporting to this country the great numbers of operatic and concert stars now abroad for vacations or Summer engagements it becomes well nigh impossible to determine how the issues can be met, how the activities contracted for can materialize−in short, how musical performances of such unparalleled excellence as have been enjoyed here for years can be provided next Winter.
Many of the foremost artists now scattered through the belligerent European countries are Americans. The principal difficulties confronting such are the possible inability of securing transportation to this country, the hardships and deprivations likely to accrue from a lack of necessary funds and the effects of the harrowing nervous strain inseparable from such conditions as those in which they are likely to find themselves. To be sure, the prospect will be brightened if swift governmental assistance is provided.
In the case of foreign male artists, however, matters are likely to be gravely complicated through enforced obligations to their respective governments and the almost inevitable summons to arms. By the process of drafting the Metropolitan, Boston and Chicago opera companies are menaced with the irremediable loss of some of the finest artistic props, as well as a large percentage of their choristers. A similar peril may naturally befall concert singers, pianists, violinists and orchestral conductors. At the present writing Italy is not yet involved in the conflict and should that country succeed in maintaining its neutrality many of the most prominent opera stars may yet succeed in reaching America unscathed.
Only the scantiest information concerning the possible whereabouts of artists or the likelihood of their detention is at present obtainable. The majority of New York concert managers are completely in the dark as to what the future may bring. At the offices of the Metropolitan Opera House similar uncertainty prevails. Whether the German, French and Italian contingent can return unmolested and hence whether the opera season is a possibility are questions that cannot be answered at this moment. It is practically certain that, should Italy become involved in the conflict, Director Gatti-Casazza, who is a naval engineer, will be called to military duty. Nor is it beyond the bound of possibilities that Messrs. Caruso, Amato, Scotti, and Conductors Toscanini and Polacco will be drafted. That many of the German and French members of the company may even now be in the field, is well nigh certain. Among the Germans and Austrians who may be involved are Rudolf Berger, Otto Goritz, Carl Braun, Herman Weil. Operatic figures well known to New Yorkers, though no longer members of the Metropolitan, who are likely to be active as warriors are Carl Burrian, Heinrich Hensel and Leo Slezak. It was the opinion in some quarters that the tall Austrian tenor, because of his personal friendship and influence with the Austrian Emperor, might secure exemption from military duty.
Because of his lameness it is unlikely that Alfred Hertz, the Wagnerian conductor, can be impressed into service. Richard Hageman and Hans Morgenstern may however, be called. Of the French artists Dinh Gilly, Léon Rothier, Paolo Ananian, and of the Russians, Karl ,Jörn and Adamo Didur are eligible. Among other notable French and Russian artists to be affected are Lucien Muratore, Vanni Marcoux, Charles Dalmorès, Theodor Chaliapine. Because of his age it is improbable that Maurice Renaud will have to fight. Italian singers not members of the Metropolitan who may become embroiled are Titta Ruffo, Alessandro Bonci and Mario Sammarco.
Henry Russell, manager of the Boston Opera Company, was last reported in Italy. Josef Urban, the noted scenic artist of that institution, is in Austria and, being a native of that country, may be obliged to serve. Andreas Dippel is in America. Cleofonte Campanini, manager of the Chicago company, is somewhere in Switzerland at this moment. Most of the American concert managers are in town or else on their vacations in this country. Exceptions are Max Rabinoff, who when last heard of was traveling from Berlin to St. Petersburg; Gertrude Cowen, who was in Munich; Charles L. Wagner, who is returning home via Montreal, being due August 14, and M. H. Hanson, who is marooned in Belgium.
Although none of the various agencies has been in a position to supply definite news, few were inclined to be entirely pessimistic regarding the outlook for the coming season. At worst they declared themselves unable to conjecture the full extent of probable losses, but there was an inclination to believe that it would not be necessary to give over large musical activities altogether. J. H. Bacon, of Loudon Charlton’s staff, went even so far as to declare that there would presently be a greater influx of artists than ever. Leading Charlton artists now abroad who are scheduled to appear here next Winter are Ossip Gabrilowitsch and Josef Lhevinne, the pianists−both of them expatriated Russians and hence ineligible for army service; Jacques Thibaud, the French violinist, who is now in Paris and liable to be drafted; Tina Lerner, the Russian pianist, now in Berlin; Felice Lyne, the American soprano; Edmund Burke, the Canadian baritone, now in England; Oscar Seagle, the American baritone, who is in London, and the Flonzaley Quartet, whose members are at their Swiss home. Harold Bauer; the pianist, is at present on an Australian tour. The war will in nowise interfere with his American engagements:
Antonia Sawyer has heard no news of Emma Eames and her husband, Emilio de Gogorza, since July 15, when they left Paris for the Italian lakes. They are booked to appear at the Maine Festival early this Fall. Being an American citizen, Mr. de Gogorza need not fight. Julia Culp and her accompanist, Von Bos, are in Berlin; Cordelia Lee, the violinist, is with Leopold Auer near Dresden; Eleanor Spencer, the pianist, was lately at Bad Nauheim; Jan Sickesz, the Dutch pianist, is believed to be in Vienna. Albert Spalding, the American violinist, reached home before the outbreak of war. With the exception of Vera Barstow and the young American soprano, Myrna Sharlow, who has just returned, all of the artists under the management of M. H. Hanson are now abroad. These include Ferruccio Busoni, the Italian pianist, who is in Berlin; Vida Llewellyn, Norah Drewett, now in Wales; Marcella Craft and Willy Burmester. Miss Craft is believed to be on her way from Munich to Italy and Mr. Burmester is in Berlin, as are Mrs. Frank King Clark, Helen Stanley and Mrs. H. H. Beach.
Of Annie Friedberg’s artists Arrigo Serato, the violinist, is in Berlin; Jaques Urlus, the Dutch Wagnerian tenor, was, according to last reports, on the Rhine; Herman Weil in the Black Forest, and Frieda Hempel, the Metropolitan soprano, in Switzerland. The whereabouts of Carl Braun are not known.
Christine Miller’s Dilemma
Haensel & Jones report Carl Flesch, the German violinist, in Holland. Because of his poor eyesight he is likely to escape being drafted. Maggie Teyte was last heard of in Paris, George Hamlin in Nűrnberg, Paul Althouse and his wife in Florence. Margarete Matzenauer, her husband Edoardo Ferrari-Fontana, and her child in Genoa; Arthur Shattuck in Paris Cecil Ayres, the pianist, in Munich, and May Mukle, the ‘cellist, in England. Christine Miller, the American contralto is believed to be in a small town near Berlin. Her financial resources consist of $1,000 in express checks which are now irredeemable.
Of Foster and David’s artists only Alexander Bloch, the violinist, is now abroad. He is with Professor Auer, near Dresden.
At R. E. Johnston’s office it was reported that in the event of a protracted war the Sevcik Quartet, of Prague, would probably abandon its proposed American tour. Marie Rappold, the Metropolitan soprano, is now with her husband, Rudolf Berger, in Germany, while André Tourret, a French violinist, is in Paris. There is much doubt as to where Mme. Alda, of the Metropolitan, is. She was to have gone to Montecatini in Italy for a cure, and was there to have been joined by her husband, Mr. Gatti-Casazza, Mr. Caruso, and Mr. Scotti. It may here be noted that Mr. Scotti is reported to have made his escape from Paris to London at the outbreak of hostilities. Frank La Forge, the accompanist and composer, was with Mme. Alda, while Gutia Casini, the ‘cellist, has gone to Russia.
John McCormack, the tenor, is in London. Alice Nielsen, Charles L. Wagner’s other star is, however, in America, where she is at present appearing in Iowa and Kansas. Howard E. Potter could not answer definitely for the American visit of Anita Rio, Ottilie Metzger or her husband, Theodore Lattermann (who may have to enlist).
The Wolfsohn Bureau reports Leonard Borwick, the pianist, in Australia. Mischa Elman is likewise in the Antipodes. Alma Gluck and Efrem Zimbalist are with Mme. Sembrich in Switzerland. Olga Samaroff, the American pianist, is in Munich with her husband, Leopold Stokowski. Mme. Destinn is believed to be touring Switzerland. She was scheduled to reach America October 11. Mme. Schumann-Heink has been appearing at the Bayreuth Festival. Ada Sassoli, the harpist, is in Italy. Another Italian harpist, Carlos Salzedo, is likewise in his home country. Kathleen Parlow, the violinist, is at her home in England.
Miss Farrar in Berlin
Leading operatic prima donnas now abroad include Geraldine Farrar, who is understood to be in Berlin; Mme. Gadski, who is with her husband, Hans Tauscher in Germany. Herr Tauscher, who is in the gun manufacturing business, is likely to be called upon to fight. Lucrezia Bori is in Switzerland, Marie Mattfeld in Germany, Mary Garden in Paris, Louise Edvina in London, Margarete Ober in Berlin. Anna Case, who was making her first visit to Europe, is believed to be in Switzerland.
The incomparable American diseuse Kitty Cheatham has reached London after trying ordeals. She was in Berlin at the outbreak of the war and on her flight to England was obliged to go for thirty hours without food.
Great fears are entertained by the innumerable friends and admirers of Fritz Kreisler that the great Austrian violinist has been obliged to take the field. Kreisler is a lieutenant in the Austrian army so that his active participation in the conflict is regarded as certain. Kubelik will fight if three reserves are called out. Ysaye, now in Belgium, is unlikely to be called upon though his son may be drafted.
On the other hand, it is doubtful if many of the leading pianists will be numbered among the belligerents. Paderewski is not likely to leave his retreat at Morges and Josef Hofmann will in all likelihood abstain from combat. That de Pachmann is exempt may be accepted as a reasonable certainty, and the age limit will probably hold in the case of the Polish Leopold Godowsky. Ernest Schelling, now abroad, is an American. So too is Edwin Hughes. Teresa Carreño is in Germany.
Much concern is felt over Josef Stransky, conductor of the New York Philharmonic, and Carl Muck, of the Boston Symphony. The former is a Bohemian, the latter a German. Muck has been conducting at Bayreuth and Stransky has been with his wife at Marienbad. At the Philharmonic offices no word had been received from the noted conductor last Tuesday. Leopold Stokowski, of the Philadelphia Orchestra, is a naturalized American, but Ernst Kunwald, of Cincinnati, may be drafted. So, too, may Adolf Tandler, of Los Angeles, who is an Austrian. Frederick Stock, of the Chicago Orchestra, is an American. He sailed for Europe aboard the Kronprinzessen Cecilie last week but that vessel did not complete its trip and anchored at Bar Harbor last Tuesday.
Choral Conductors Abroad
Choral conductors now abroad include Louis Koemmenich, of the New York Oratorio Society, and Kurt Schindler, of the Schola Cantorium. Both are Germans, but if the age limit prevails the former will not be obliged to serve. There are also a number of prominent American teachers in Europe, either resident or on vacation trips, as well as several music critics. Among the latter are Richard Aldrich, of the New York Times, and Pitts Sanborn, of the Globe.
There are a number of prominent teachers from America now in Europe on vacations. Among these is Frank Damrosch, of the Institute of Musical Art, in New York. The Chicago Musical College will suffer considerably if several members of its faculty are marooned. Several of them are liable to serve−Ettore Titta Ruffo and Edoardo Sacerdote for conscription in Italy, Leon Sametini in Holland, O. Gordon Erickson in Sweden, Adolf Műhlmann in Russia and Walter Knupfer in Germany. Karleton Hackett and F. Wight Neumann, the impresario and his wife are in Europe, though their whereabouts are uncertain.
What It Means for America
Without any serious desire at this moment to reverse the black war cloud in search of the proverbial silver lining one cannot but be instinctively impressed at the merest thought of the vast opportunities which the present deplorable convulsion offers to American musical development along all lines. Should the struggle be protracted−extending, that is, over a period of years−the result is certain. But even if it be fierce and short the advantages which the United States can grasp are big with potentiality. Direful as may seem the immediate prospects when superficially considered, the thoughtful observer must admit that the chance for which this country has long waited is at hand. We are face to face with the quintessence of opportunity. The path is clear for the first true practical demonstration of our latent powers in the country’s artistic annals. Competition of the sort that stifled and paralyzed is ruthlessly shattered and crushed. Should the worst materialize and the ban be forcibly laid against foreign musical immigration there will be but one remedy−cultivation of and absolute dependence upon indigenous resources. Creation−if fresh musical creation there is to be−must operate in our midst; and for the first time, calmly, indulgently and without hysteria the works of Americans will be listened to by Americans and judged by them. Novelties−if novelties there are to be−must be sought out here; no scouring of Europe will be possible, nor would it likely be profitable if it were. Interpreters−pianists, singers, conductors, violinists and orchestral players of all types must be found here. And the demand will create the needful stimulus for the essential supply. Last, but far from least, there will be no choice in the matter of foreign and domestic music study. For unless the war be exceedingly brief disorganization will have undermined not only foreign prestige but will have disrupted and scattered existent factors and institutions. And once a fair trial has been accorded American instruction the evil spell under which it has labored will doubtless be forever exorcised. A vast opportunity this, far-reaching in its ramifications. Unless present aspects be most chimerical and deceptive there is truly something millennial about them.

De Harrack, Serbian Court Pianist, Visiting in America
CLEVELAND, 0., Aug. 4.−Charles de Harrack, Serbian court pianist and a close friend of Crown Prince Alexander, now King of Serbia, is in this city visiting his mother previous to beginning an American concert tour. The pianist’s acquaintance with the crown prince and the fact that he played for years to ex-King Peter, who abdicated about four weeks ago, has made Mr. de Harrack’s practice studio a mecca for newspaper men since the war began in Continental Europe.

American Violinist Escapes Peril in Berlin
PITTSBURGH, PA., Aug. 3.−At least one American girl abroad was lucky enough to set sail for home regardless of the fact that the German vessel on which she was to come was ordered to remain in port on the day war was declared by Germany. She is Ella Spindler, of Verona, a suburb of Pittsburgh. As soon as Miss Spindler was prevented from leaving Germany she hurried to Holland and managed to get accommodations on a Holland-American line steamer. She cabled her father and brothers here of her good fortune. Miss Spindler, who is so well and favorably known here because of her abilities as a violinist, has been studying in Berlin. −E. C. S.

George Everett, American Singer, Returns After Covent Garden Season
“I consider myself fortunate in getting back to America in good time before the war broke out,” said George Everett, the young American baritone, who returned last week on the Lusitania. Mr. Everett has just concluded his first season at Covent Garden. For the past three seasons he has been a member of the Boston Opera Company. During that time Henry Higgins, the Covent Garden impresario, heard him in the part of Silvio in Pagliacci and was so much impressed by this young American singer that he signed a contract with him for three years. This season he appeared at Covent Garden seventeen times in various operas, including “Tosca,” “Butterfly,” “Rigoletto,” “Louise” and “Lohengrin.”

Mme. Schumann-Heink Cables Her Lawyer for Relief
CHICAGO, Aug. 4.—Mme. SchumannHeink is stranded in Bayreuth. Her lawyer in this city received the following cable dispatch from her to-day: “As no letters are allowed and intercourse with outsiders is forbidden, we are stranded at Bayreuth. When will America send for her citizens?” The lawyer cabled that the United States is prepared to assist all its citizens now in Europe with money and transportation, and advised the singer to communicate with the nearest American Consul. Mme. Schumann-Heink is a naturalized American.

Lucille Lawrence Wins High Salary in That Country’s Opera Ranks
MILAN, ITALY, July 20.−One of the most successful and best paid American prima donnas on the operatic stage in Italy is Lucille Lawrence, formerly of Kentucky, with whom a number of managements have been negotiating for appearances in Bucharest, Roumania; Budapest, Hungary, and also for the Egyptian season in the natural theater of the Pyramids, all for the coming season.
It will be recalled that “the Lawrence,” as she is popularly termed in Italy, is the same gifted singer who made such a promising debut at the Metropolitan several years ago. Since then Lucille Lawrence has sung in Italy with ever-increasing success, so that to-day it is said that she draws the highest salary that is paid an American artist in this country. For two consecutive seasons Miss Lawrence has been the prima donna in the famous Battistini opera company.
Recently Miss Lawrence was called to Vienna, there to make the first record of Italian opera, which included both acting and singing, for the new invention, the Kinetaphone. −O. P. J.

Says European Musicians Look to America for Gold
Mizzi Hajos, the Sari in Henry W. Savage’s production of the operetta of that name, has spent her Summer in Europe, where she has made some interesting observations which she sets forth in a letter to the Savage office. Miss Hajos writes that it seems the ambition of every Austrian and Hungarian musician to compose an operetta that will become a hit in the United States. These composers, she says, look to this country for real financial returns. They have figured out, she explains, that a piece to be accepted by the American public must first have a European vogue, but for actual money they look to this side of the Atlantic. The fulfillment of their aim would be to write an operetta that scores on the other side and then have it produced in this country, where the money would come from. The careers of “The Merry Widow” and “Sari,” from which enormous returns have been realized, have turned the eyes of all young composers to the United States.

G. C. Weitzel of Pittsburgh Substitutes for Moratti in Berlin
BERLIN, July 24.−Vittorino Moratti, the Berlin vocal teacher, is spending four weeks with his family. During his absence Mr. Moratti’s studios will be conducted by G. C. Weitzel, the Pittsburgh teacher and pupil of the late G. B. Lamperti and Mr. Moratti. O. P. J.


Search Musical America's archive of photos from 1900-1992.